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Baked goods in Italy can be divided into two areas - bread and sweets. BREAD has been a staple all around the world and in every culture you will find that they have their own way of making the best bread ever. It is very common to find fresh bread - baked daily - on the table in every Italian house hold. It is sold in different sizes by weight normally 500 grams, 1 kilo and the larger size of 1 and a half kilos.
You can find larger measures but normally they are not the traditional Tuscan bread. So how do you tell them all apart? Well they are divided into 4 basic categories - bread without salt, bread with salt, bread with salt and olive oil and the fourth category includes everything else, even the ever famous "Ciaccia" or sometimes better known as "foccacia".
The most traditional type of bread found in the center of Tuscany is the typical "pane comune" or "pane casalingo". The ingredients include flour and water - and depending on the baker they can either use yeast to make it rise or they can let it rise naturally. It is characterized by its round or oblong shape and the fact that it is quite compact - since it doesn`t rise to be very high.
You will normally find this bread in any store or forno you go into - and it is NOT salted. Legend has it that once upon a time in Tuscany the Pope got quite mad at the people and punished them by taking away their salt trade. Salt is an important part of any diet - even the romans knew that when they made salt part of the pay that their soldiers received - and the Pope had hoped to bring the Tuscan people to their knees by taking it away.
But the Tuscans were made of tougher stuff and simply started making their dishes without salt - another reason why you will find the meals in Tuscany spicey and flavourful. When the Pope finally gave up on them and let them have their salt trade back, the Tuscans continued to hold on to the bread without salt, till now. Some even say that a bread with salt or too much flavour will take away from their tastey dishes!
Within the last 20 years, it has be come quite common to find "pane salato" and "pane all'olio" in the stores in order to accomodate the large number of visitors that come to Tuscany. This bread is characterized by its light brown flakey crust, it is normally higher than bread without salt because it is left to rise in a different manner and it has a tendency be fresh and soft for only a day or two.
It is normally more flavourful and less commpact than other types of bread. You will find this type of bread most prevelant near the coast. One of the main differences between this bread and the typical bread without salt is that the bread without salt will last a little longer, in fact this type of bread is the bases for many popular poor man dishes in all of Tuscany like the great summer salad "Panzanella" or the winter treat "Minestra di Pane".
Focaccia, or sometimes better known to the local Tuscans as schiacciata or "ciaccia" (pronounced cha - cha), is the typical bread for snacking with. It is a low, flat bread made with flour, water, a little bit of salt and typically found with salt and olive oil liberally sprinkled on top right after it has come out of the oven.
It is extremely flavorful and many times can be found with a variety of toppings (rosemary, olives, etc). You can find this bread in all local supermarkets or "forno" - which literally means oven, and they make it fresh on the premises. There is nothing like walking into a forno early in the morning and smelling the bread coming out of the oven, except for a Sunday...
Since bread is the principle ingredient in any Italian meal, you will find that it comes literaly in all shapes, weights and flavours. Just to name a few, there is the Ciabatta, which is characterized by being very flat but it has a very light and fluffly interior - filled with lots of air bubbles and flavour dough or the Rosetta which is made up like a little rose.
The ingredients include flour, water and salt characterized by its fluffy appearance and floury taste. There is also "Pane Pugliese", this is normally a large round bread, very high and fluffy with a dark brown crust. If you prefer whole grain breads you may want to look for "Pane Panda". It is also common in many restaurants to find Grissini, a long very narrow bread which is extremely crunchy.
The best place to find fresh bread is in the local forno - they make it every morning! The larger supermarkets or little specialty stores normally have more than one type of forno who delivers bread fresh everyday - just look on the label to see who the baker is. Normally you will find the bread pre-wrapped in transparent plastic with a white label.
It must say the ingredients, the baker, the name of the product, how much it wieghs and how much it costs or at the counter, where they will cut it to size. The cost of bread has been established by the local government and you will find that the standard white bread has the same costs, the price difference is due to the weight.